Medieval music was very different from modern music, and most music in the Middle Ages was either religious or secular. Religious music was the music of the church, usually written in Latin and based upon religious texts. Gregorian chant was one type of medieval religious music. Secular music, on the other hand, was the music of street performers and romantics. It was usually written in the vernacular language (such as French, German, English, etc.), and often dealt with themes of chivalry, romance and sex.

Minstrels were street performers, who often recited tales, sang songs and performed other forms of public entertainment. Troubadours were composers and performers of romantic secular music in France during the High Middle Ages, and their German equivalents were the Minnesingers.

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